Machu Picchu - Perú
Paracas - Perú
Miraflores - Perú
Cataratas de Iguazu - Argentina
Parque Nacional Torres del Paine - Colombia
Chichén Itzá - México
Tazumal - El Salvador
Vieja Catedral de Managua - Nicaragua
Basilica de Nuestra Señora de los Angeles - Costa Rica
Basilica del Voto Nacional
Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro - Cuba
Cristo Blanco - Brasil
  • Low-dose transdermal estradiol for vasomotor symptoms: a systematic review.

    Menopause. 2014 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]

    Corbelli J1, Shaikh N, Wessel C, Hess R.

    OBJECTIVE: This review aims to determine the effectiveness of low-dose transdermal estrogen versus placebo in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe hot flashes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies by searching Medline and EMBASE using the following inclusion criteria: double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials conducted in postmenopausal women with at least 7 hot flashes per day and/or at least 50 hot flashes per week. All included studies used estrogen formulations below the equivalent dose of 0.05 mg of 17β-estradiol. RESULTS: Nine studies met all inclusion criteria. Seven of nine studies had low risk of bias, whereas two studies had high risk of bias. Low-dose transdermal estrogen in all dose ranges was more likely than placebo to decrease the daily number of hot flashes. Meta-analysis was not performed as only three of the nine studies included measures of variance; weighted means were used ...

  • Extended maternal age at birth of last child and women's longevity in the Long Life Family Study.

    Menopause. 2014 Jun 23. [Epub ahead of print]

    Sun F1, Sebastiani P, Schupf N, Bae H, Andersen SL, McIntosh A, Abel H, Elo IT, Perls TT.

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between maternal age at birth of last child and likelihood of survival to advanced age. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study using Long Life Family Study data. Three hundred eleven women who survived past the oldest 5th percentile of survival (according to birth cohort-matched life tables) were identified as cases, and 151 women who died at ages younger than the top 5th percentile of survival were identified as controls. A Bayesian mixed-effect logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between maternal age at birth of last child and exceptional longevity among these 462 women. RESULTS: We found a significant association for older maternal age, whereby women who had their last child ...

  • Transdermal absorption of natural progesterone from alcoholic gel formulations with hydrophilic surfactant.

    Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2014 Jul 1:1-4. [Epub ahead of print]

    Matsui R1, Ueda O, Uchida S, Namiki N.

    Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro skin permeation and in vivo transdermal absorption of natural progesterone (Prog) from alcoholic gel-based transdermal formulations containing Prog dissolved stably at a concentration of 3%. Methods: 3% Prog dissolved gel formulations were prepared containing with water, ethanol, 1,3-butylene glycol, carboxyvinylpolymer, diisopropanolamine, polyoxyethylene (2) oleylether and benzyl alcohol. The gel formulations added different hydrophilic surfactants and isopropyl myristate or propylene glycol dicaprylate (PGDC) as oily solvents were applied in vitro permeation study through excised rat skin on unocclusive condition. The gel formulations added polyoxyethylene (20) oleylether (Oleth-20) as hydrophilic surfactant and PGDC were applied in vivo single- and repeated-dose transdermal ...

  • Pleiotropic Effects of Obesity on Fracture Risk: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jul 1. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.2303. [Epub ahead of print]

    Ishii S1, Cauley JA, Greendale GA, Nielsen C, Karvonen-Gutierrez C, Ruppert K, Karlamangla AS.

    Some aspects of an obese body habitus may protect against fracture risk (higher BMD and greater tissue padding), while others may augment that risk (greater impact forces during a fall). To examine these competing pathways, we analyzed data from a multisite, multiethnic cohort of 1924 women, premenopausal or early perimenopausal at baseline. Obesity was defined as baseline body mass index (BMI)> 30kg/m2. Composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to fall impact forces were constructed from DXA-derived bone size, bone mineral density (BMD) and body size. Incident fractures were ascertained annually during a median follow-up of 9 years. In multivariable linear regression adjusted for covariates, higher BMI was associated with higher BMD but with lower composite strength indices, suggesting that although BMD ...

  • A randomized trial of transdermal and oral estrogen therapy in adolescent girls with hypogonadism.

    Int J Pediatr Endocrinol. 2014;2014(1):12. doi: 10.1186/1687-9856-2014-12. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

    Shah S1, Forghani N2, Durham E1, Neely EK1.

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent females with ovarian failure require estrogen therapy for induction of puberty and other important physiologic effects. Currently, health care providers have varying practices without evidence-based standards, thus investigating potential differences between oral and transdermal preparations is essential. The purpose of this study was to compare the differential effects of treatment with oral conjugated equine estrogen (OCEE), oral 17β estradiol (OBE), or transdermal 17β estradiol (TBE) on biochemical profiles and feminization in girls with ovarian failure. STUDY DESIGN: 20 prepubertal adolescent females with ovarian failure, ages 12-18 years, were randomized to OCEE (n = 8), OBE (n = 7), or TBE (n = 5) for 24 months. Estrogen replacement was initiated at a low dose (0.15 mg OCEE, 0.25 mg OBE, or 0.0125 mg TBE) ...

  • Mortality After Hip Fracture in Austria 2008-2011.

    Calcif Tissue Int. 2014 Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print]

    Brozek W1, Reichardt B, Kimberger O, Zwerina J, Dimai HP, Kritsch D, Klaushofer K, Zwettler E.

    Osteoporosis-related hip fractures represent a substantial cause of mortality and morbidity in industrialized countries like Austria. Identification of groups at high risk for mortality after hip fracture is crucial for health policy decisions. To determine in-hospital, long-term, and excess mortality after osteoporosis-related hip fracture in Austrian patients, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of pseudonymized invoice data from Austrian social insurance authorities covering roughly 98 % of the entire population. The data set included 31,668 subjects aged 50 years and above sustaining a hip fracture between July 2008 and December 2010 with follow-up until June 2011, and an age-, gender-, and regionally matched control population without hip fractures (56,320 subjects). Kaplan-Meier and Cox hazard regression analyses served to determine unadjusted and adjusted mortality rates: Unadjusted all-cause 1-year mortality amounted to 20.2 % (95 % CI: 19.7-20.7 %). ...

  • The contraception needs of the perimenopausal woman.

    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2014 Jun 5. doi: 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2014.05.006. [Epub ahead of print]

    Hardman SM1, Gebbie AE2.

    Perimenopausal women have low fertility but must still be advised to use contraception until natural sterility is reached if they are sexually active. Patterns of contraceptive use vary in different countries worldwide. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods offer reliable contraception that may be an alternative to sterilisation. Hormonal methods confer significant non-contraceptive benefits, and each individual woman should weigh up the benefits and risks of a particular method. No method of contraception is contraindicated by age alone, although combined hormonal contraception and injectable progestogens are not recommended for women over the age of 50 years...

  • The effect of hormone therapy on mean blood pressure and visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trials.

    J Hypertens. 2014 Jul 2. [Epub ahead of print]

    Shimbo D1, Wang L, Lamonte MJ, Allison M, Wellenius GA, Bavry AA, Martin LW, Aragaki A, Newman JD, et al.

    OBJECTIVES: Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of BP in postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. METHODS: BP was measured at baseline and annually in the two WHI hormone therapy trials, in which 10 739 and 16 608 postmenopausal women were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs, 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and CEEs and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, respectively. RESULTS: At the first annual visit (year 1)...

  • Vitamin D and menopause-A narrative review.

    Maturitas. 2014 Jun 13. pii: S0378-5122(14)00199-6. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.06.003.

    Lerchbaum E.

    There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D (VD) has important effects besides its well-known role in calcium and bone metabolism. Hypovitaminosis D is associated with cardiovascular disease, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer as well as with increased mortality. Further, VD deficiency is related to depression and impaired cognitive function. Increasing age and elevated body fat mass contribute to an increased risk of VD deficiency. Further, some studies report a relationship between VD and estrogen metabolism. During menopause, the decline of estrogens results in increased bone turnover, a decrease in bone mineral density and elevated fracture risk. Musculoskeletal discomfort might impair quality of life, mood disturbances do frequently occur and the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease increases...